Marker Table and Mutation GraphAncestral Tree and Mutation Graph Nodes

Tutorial Notes on

Genetic Genealogy
Y-DNA, Ancestral Trees and Mutation Graphs

by Robert L. Baber
last updated 2018 August 8

Our ancestors never completely died. They continue to live in our DNA even if we know nothing else about them.

This web site offers you information on using Y-DNA test results for family genealogical research. Click on the corresponding line below for tutorial notes on
  1. DNA Basics, Definitions, Concepts and Understanding Fundamentals such as Marker Tables, Ancestral Trees and Mutation Graphs.
  2. How to Deduce Ancestors' Y-DNA Marker Values.
  3. How to Transform a Marker Table into a Mutation Graph.
  4. How to Transform a Mutation Graph into an Ancestral Tree.
  5. How to Transform a Marker Table into an Ancestral Tree Directly, without Deriving a Mutation Graph.
  6. When Are Which Additional Tests Needed?
For a pdf file containing the two cards pictured in the upper left and right corners of this web page, click on either of their images above.

For the slides of my presentations:
Copyrights to all material on or accessible from this page are owned and reserved by Robert L. Baber. These materials may be used privately for personal family research only. For permission to use this material in any other way or commercially, please contact the author.

You can contact the author at Bob@RLBaber.de. For information about


Conversions, Marker Table, Mutation Graph, Ancestral Tree